Grammar: Prepositional Phrases

Prepositional phrases

a) With "by"

We use "by" in a number of different ways:


1. To say how we do something.

  • To send something by post
  • To do something by hand
  • To pay by credit card (N.B. in cash)


2. To say how somebody travels.

  • by car / by train / by bus, etc. (N.B. on foot)


3. With the use of the passive.

  • The painting was painted by Goya
  • A Mid Summer Night's dream was written by Shakespeare


4. Expressions with "by":

By accident / By all means / By chance / By hand / By mistake / By sight / By surprise / By yourself



b) With "in"

Here is a list of prepositional phrases with "in". Please learn them.

In all / In common / In danger / In debt / In difficulties / In general / In a hurry / In other words / In particular / In private / In public / In secret / In tears



c) With "on" and "out of"

Here is a list of prepositional phrases with "on" and "out of". Learn them!

On business / On duty / On the one hand ... on the other hand / On purpose / On the telephone / On time / On the whole / Out of date / Out of order / Out of reach / Out of time / Out of work


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