Lesson 5 – Paper 1 (Parts 3 & 4)
In this lesson, we are going to practice Parts 3 & 4 before completing Paper 1 (The Reading Exam) in Lesson 6.
Complete the following exam tasks (Parts 3 & 4) in 40 minutes.
You are going to read a newspaper article about fasting (fasting = to stop eating all or some kinds of food or drink for a certain period of time). Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).
Fasting and its special power
With its common association with religion, fasting could be something that is soon practised by non-religious individuals alike. In Islam, fasting is of extreme importance due to the fact that it is the fourth of the five pillars. (0) _______________. Their belief being that fasting will bring greater rewards to their lives. In Christianity, Christians can be known to fast temporarily as a means to get closer to God. (1) _______________. Putting its religious application aside, scientists are now stating claims that this practice is a lot more powerful than first expected.
The positive impacts of fasting practices have long been questioned. Generally speaking, during a fast, individuals can experience dizzy spells, blurred vision, fatigue and abdominal cramps. (2) _______________. Nonetheless, new scientific studies confirm that fasting has the capability to alleviate a number of poor health ailments. These range from helping patients fight cancer, diminishing the risk of its development, preventing heart disease and diabetes to promoting the control of asthma. (3) _______________.
Recently, the focus of research has changed. According to Dr Coedo, a scientist involved in recent studies, until now research has centred on longevity and health with the focus strictly on calorie restriction. “Prior research performed on mice showed that the lifespan of these animals increased by up to 50% once their calorie intake had been cut in half for a sustained period. Unfortunately, however, the same results were not replicated in primates” says Dr Coedo. (4) _______________.
New evidence advocates that short-term fasts maximize health benefits. Dr Coedo outlines two different approaches. (5) _______________. Then for those who deem this too offensive, there’s the 5:2 diet. As its name implies, you have the opportunity to eat what you want 5 days a week and 2 days a week, you eat fewer than 600 calories. “There are no strict rules as very few trials have been performed on human beings” claims Dr Coedo.
Like me, you may be asking why intermittent fasting is better than calorie reduction. We all know that if we reduce our calorie intake, we are likely to lose weight. (6) _______________ “It has to do with the 1GF-1 hormone. This hormone has the ability to reproduce and its reproduction when growing is essential, but not in later life. In fact, lower levels of IGF-1 in our bodies protect us from heart disease, cancer and age-related diseases”, says Dr Coedo. In his research, he found considerably lower levels of 1GF-1 which is how he reached his conclusions.
Scientists are still chasing humans to trail the different techniques on. (7) _______________. Millions of people undertake weekly diets or go to the gym with the aim of improving their physical state. If this is proven in humans, then people will unquestionably take up these practices voluntarily and Dr’s worldwide may even prescribe them to their patients.
0 = Typically this sees Muslims fast for an entire month.
A. This information has been fed to us for centuries. Dr Coedo, nonetheless, explains why intermittent fasting is better.
B. Indisputably, these symptoms are not good for our health.
C. Nevertheless, one thing that is clear is that what was once only considered a religious practice, could now become the norm in many people’s weekly health regimes.
D. The Alternate Day Fasting (ADF) which involves eating normally one day and the next day restricting your diet to fewer than 600 calories.
E. In Buddhism, it is common practise amongst those who wish to attempt self-control and advocate abstaining from food
F. All of which surprisingly indicate that fasting cannot only improve people’s physical health but also potentially lengthen people’s lives.
G. A lot of people fast for religious reasons and so this new dieting method is going to be easy for all to follow.
H. “With the focus now shifting from regular calorie reduction to intermittent fasting, the results obtained have been astounding”, he further claims.
You are going to read a magazine article in which various people are interviewed. For questions 1-12, choose from the people A-I. The people can be chosen more than once. When more than one answer is required, these may be given in any order.
Which of the people states the following?
1. I gain energy from other people’s problems
2. Being outdoors gives me energy
3. The people I work with give me energy
4. I enjoy behaving like a child
5. I’m happy to work all night in the right situation
6. Exercise provides me with energy
7. I would like to take my hobby more seriously
8. I gain energy when I’m challenged
9. Changing my lifestyle provided me with more energy
10. I like to take a gamble with new things
11. I’m doing something I never thought I would
12. I have made some money
Where I find my energy
A. Antony Read
Sportsman: “I love challenges. Anything related to sport really makes me enthusiastic. If I wake up in the morning knowing that I’ve got numerous goals to reach, I jump out of bed. If I don’t, I tend to spend my day wondering around aimlessly. My latest challenge involves a 1000km bike ride around Europe. I’m training really hard for that at the moment”.
B. Sarah May
Freelance writer: “When I have a lot of work to do and I enjoy the work, then I’ve always got bundles of energy. I love writing articles related to fashion and beauty. That’s what I specialise in. If I’ve got a 7am deadline, I’m happy to work through the night. I just sleep more the next day”.
C. Tony Smith
Banker: “My job is particularly stressful, but I find that if I make the time to do an hour of exercise after work, I feel new again. At the gym or when I go running, I’m able to relieve all the stress in my body and I have a new lease of energy. For me, exercise is the key”.
D. Lourdes Cunningham
Therapist: “Every day I listen to men and women talk about their problems. It doesn’t affect me in a negative way, in fact, it gives me more energy. When I hear their problems, I become aware of the fact that I am so lucky with my life. I have an amazing husband and a beautiful daughter”.
E. Timmy Johnson
Disk Jockey: “For a long time, I spent my days exhausted. As a DJ, I sometimes work until 3am. My sleeping patterns alter a lot and so my body finds it difficult to keep up. I went to my doctor and she advised me to change my diet. Before vising the doctor, I ate an unhealthy diet filled with ready-meals and junk food. Now, I eat fresh meat, fruit and vegetables. It has made a huge difference to how I feel. I’m a happier person with lots more energy”.
F. Alex Harrison
Consultant: “I travel a lot with my job and it can be quite tiring and stressful. Most weeks, I fly to at least one European city, if not two. The key is to push yourself when you’re tired to meet up with your friends. Seeing my friends from time to time, not only gives me the opportunity to laugh, as we act like children, but also de-stress. The next day, I’m ready to face another flight, to another destination”.
G. Sophie James
Nurse: “What I love doing more than anything in the world is dancing. It doesn’t matter what type, where or when, but I always find the energy to do it and afterwards, I feel great. I often go to dance clubs and night clubs alone because I’m an outgoing person and I always make friends. I think one day I would like to take my dancing to the next level. I’m certainly good enough!”
H. James Jones
Salesman: “I believe you must have an interest in and respect for what you do in life. I like to take risks. Risks motivate me. Last month, I invested a huge amount of money in a company and at the moment, my shares have doubled. At the time, I felt extremely nervous investing all that amount of money, but now I walk around with a smile on my face knowing that I did the right thing”.
I. Susan Ryan
Headmistress: “My energy comes from gardening. Come rain or shine, I’m out in my garden. It gives me a great work out and allows me to disconnect. I don’t have to concentrate on anything and I feel at peace. Sometimes my friends ask me to do their gardening because they know how much I enjoy it. When I was younger, I never thought I would be into it”.
Now, check your answers!
Your are now ready to complete Paper 1 (The Reading Exam). Good luck.
0 = Typically this sees Muslims fast for an entire month.
1 = In Buddhism, it is common practise amongst those who wish to attempt self-control and advocate abstaining from food
2 = Indisputably, these symptoms are not good for our health.
3 = All of which surprisingly indicate that fasting cannot only improve people’s physical health but also potentially lengthen people’s lives.
4 = “With the focus now shifting from regular calorie reduction to intermittent fasting, the results obtained have been astounding”, he further claims.
5 = The Alternate Day Fasting (ADF) which involves eating normally one day and the next day restricting your diet to fewer than 600 calories.
6 = This information has been fed to us for centuries. Dr Coedo, nonetheless, explains why intermittent fasting is better.
7 = Nevertheless, one thing that is clear is that what was once only considered a religious practice, could now become the norm in many people’s weekly health regimes.
6. C + A