Grammar: Conjunctions



a) Although

Although + subject + verb

Although I wanted to go New York, I couldn't go because the flights were too expensive



b) In spite of / Despite

We use "in spite of" / "despite" in a sentence which starts off negative and which has a positive ending.

In spite of (Despite) + noun / pronoun + ing


  • In spite of what I did yesterday, I still had a good time
  • Despite the bad weather, I still went out
  • In spite of having no money, I still managed to buy



c) In case

We use "in case" to say why somebody does or doesn't do something. You do something now in case something happens later.

In case + subject + verb

You can not use the simple future tense after "in case".

  • My brother might call tonight. I don't want to leave my house in case he phones



d) Unless

Unless + subject + verb

1. We use "unless" as a synonym of "except if" / "only if"

  • You can not go to the party unless you have an invitation

2. We can use "unless" as a warning:

  • We will miss the train unless we hurry (except if we hurry)



e) As long as / So long as / Provided (that) / Providing (that)

1. We use these conjunctions as a synonym of "if" or "on condition that".

2. We do not use the future simple tense (will) after these conjunctions.


As long as / So long as / Provided (that) / Providing (that) + subject + verb

  • You can borrow my shoes as long as / so long as you don't walk in the rain with them on
  • You can use my computer provided that / providing that you don't use the internet


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