Lección 5ª: Omisión del artículo


 

Gramática

1.- Artículo indefinido: a / an

Se omite:

a) Delante de un sustantivo en plural:

a car / cars

a house / houses

You can see a house over there / You can see houses over there

b) Delante de nombres génericos de sustancias (wine, milk, gold, wood, silver, petrol, blood...):

I like milk

I don't drink wine

No obstante, si un sustantivo genérico se utiliza con un sentido concreto, para hacer referencia a algo determinado, entonces lleva artículo:

What a good wine!

c) Delante de nombres abstractos (happiness, justice, fear, help, love, future, hope...):

The children have fear of phantoms

The drug addicts especially need understanding and help

d) Delante de nombres de comidas; breakfast, lunch, dinner,...

We have dinner at 8 o'clock

This morning I had breakfast very late

Salvo cuando van precedidos por un adjetivo calificativo:

What a delicious dinner you have prepared!

2.- Artículo definido: the

Se omite:

a) Con nombres abstractos , salvo que se utilicen con un sentido particular:

Justice is the basis of any political system

In Spain the justice works very slowly

b) Delante de nombres de deportes:

He plays tennis (football)

c) Delante de nombres genéricos en plural:

Sport cars are always expensive

Men practise sport more than women

Children learn foreign languages more easily than adults

In Spain dentists are very well paid

Salvo cuando se utilizan con un sentido concreto:

Last weekend we went to Paris with the children

All the dentists I know advise you to brush your teeth after every meal

d) Con los sustantivos "home" / "work":

Last Friday I stayed at home all evening

He goes to work

e) Con los sustantivos "bed" / "church" / "prison" / "school" / "university" ... cuando se hace referencia a su finalidad básica:

To go to bed (to sleep)

To go to church / to come back from church (to pray)

To be in hospital / to leave hospital (as a patient)

To stay in prison (as a prisoner)

To be back from university / to leave school (as a student)

Pero cuando se hace referencia a estos lugares por otros motivos (por ejemplo, ir a un hospital de visita) entonces sí llevan artículos:

I went to the hospital to visit my wife

I went to the university to ask for information